Thursday, December 5, 2019
Questions: 1. Discuss the various types of service systems food and beverage outlets? 2. Analysis of Purchasing process? Answers: 1. Types of service systems food and beverage outlets: Self operated: In this type the operation is been done by the owner itself. This could be a small, large or a franchised situation also. Franchisee agreement: In this the franchisee pays fees to the franchisor in return of right to use the building, business methods and name of the franchisor. Outsourcing: Starbucks is a coffee chain which is outsourced where the hotel undergoes a partnership with a restaurant . Silver Service: This type of service is generally for five star hotels which includes a proper plating of food with soup, main course and sweet dish in proper silver sterlings. English Service: it is also referred to as Host Service. In this food is brought and been served by the waiter and the host have to approve its quality over preference (Slideshare.net, 2012). Gueridon Service: In this type of service a complete meal is cooked in a moving trolley and the meal is cooked in the tableside of a kitchen. French Service: It is a type of personalized service where food is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvars and been kept on table itself . (Pantelidis, 2013) 2: Analysis of Purchasing process When we think of purchasing any product or service we should first identify our own needs that can give us satisfaction. It should match to our budget set and quality of service should be high. Often we go for durable products with longitivity (Purchasinginsight.com, 2015). We also must see what equipments we require. Example for making tea we need a kettle, tea bags and sugar. References Pantelidis, I. (2013). Food and Beverage Management.Tourism Management,34, 249-250. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2012.06.004 Purchasinginsight.com,. (2015).Purchasing Process. Retrieved 13 February 2015, from https://purchasinginsight.com/resources/the-purchasing-process Slideshare.net,. (2012).FOOD BEVERAGE MANAGEMENT. Retrieved 13 February 2015, from https://www.slideshare.net/Lawiex21/food-beverage-management
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Irony in O'Connor Flannery O'Connor uses irony in "Good Country People" to give the reader a better sense of what she is trying to communicate to the reader, and show the meaning of her characters and their actions. There are several ironies in the story that the reader can see in there first reading, but there are several that need more attention. The first is Hulga's mother and people around them. The second example is the Bible salesman, and the way he fools everyone but Mrs. Hopewell. The last is the main character Hulga whose personality is an irony in itself. All three of these give different examples of irony, that leaves the reader wondering about O'Connor's cleverness in thinking. The first ironies involves Hulgas mother and the people she talks about. Mrs. Hopewell says that Mrs. Freeman is a person who never admits she was wrong and that she is into everyone's business. She then says Mrs. Freeman is a lady. Another example is when she describes Mrs. Freeman's daughters Glynese and Carramae, "as the finest girls she ever knew"(393) immediately after the reader learns that Carramae is only fifteen and already pregnant and married, and Glynese was eighteen but already had many admirers. The second source of irony is in the Bible salesman and the fact that he turns out to not be such a good country person. He appears to be a simple boy spreading the word of God through the world with the little time he has, due to the ailment suspiciously similar to the what Hulga is supposedly dying of. His whole character is an irony. He says he is a Bible salesman but, in fact, is not even a Christian. The bible he carries around, has two sides like its owner. On its outside, it seems to be a good old bible, but when it is opened the reader finds alcohol, playing cards, and other objects that show the salesman's true character. Another irony is the way the salesman fools Hulga into thinking he is not very bright and then he turns around and tricks her into giving him her false leg. The last example is the main character Hulga. The first irony in Hulga is the fact that she has an exceptional education, but she is still fooled by the simple Bible salesman. She also has an irony similar to the Bible-Salesman. Hulga is a tough, educated, invulnerable woman with her leg on, but as soon as she takes it off, she reverts to Joy who is still a vulnerable little girl. Another irony is that she is mean to all who are nice to her and she is nice to the one person who is cruel to her, and shows her no compassion. All of these examples of irony show O'Connor's cleverness. They also show the different aspects, which makes the reader think and contemplate deeper into the meaning of O'Connor's words. "Good Country People" is just one example of how irony is used by one author, after someone reads a story like this, one should be more aware of ironies in Literature
Sunday, November 24, 2019
adult education Essay Example adult education Essay adult education Essay Adult education is the process whereby adults engage in systematic and sustained learning activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values. Adult education can take place in the workplace, through extension school (e. g. , Harvard Extension) or school of continuing education (e. g. , Columbia School of Continuing Education). Other learning places include community colleges, folk high schools, colleges and universities, libraries, and lifelong learning centers. The practice may also include Training and Development which is often associated with rofessional development. Adult education has also been referred to as andragogy (to distinguish it from pedagogy). Educating adults differs from educating children in several ways. One of the most important differences is that adults have accumulated knowledge and work experience which can add to the learning experience. Another difference is that most adult education is voluntary, therefore, the participants are generally self-motivated. Adults frequently apply their knowledge in a practical fashion to learn effectively. They must have a reasonable expectation that the nowledge they gain will help them further their goals. For example, during the 1990s, many adults, including mostly office workers, enrolled in computer training courses. These courses would teach basic use of the operating system or specific application software. Due to the fact that the abstractions governing the users interactions with a PC were so new, many people who had been working white-collar jobs for ten years or more eventually took such training courses, either at their own whim (to gain computer skills and thus earn higher pay) or at the behest of their managers. In the United States, a more general example is when adults who dropped out of high school return to school to complete general education requirements. Most upwardly mobile positions require at the very least a high school diploma or equivalent. A working adult is unlikely to have the freedom to simply quit his or her Job and go back to school full-time. Public school systems and community colleges usually offer evening or weekend classes for this reason. In Europe this is often referred to as second-chance, and many schools offer tailor-made courses and learning programs for these returning learners.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Entrepreneurship - Assignment Example The literature reviewed includes the common myths regarding entrepreneurship, common characteristics associated with entrepreneurs, how entrepreneurial behaviour affects business, and Anita Roddick's (of The Body Shop) view on entrepreneurial qualities. Next, a guideline for the research process for candidate selection is presented. The findings from published literature and questionnaire are then used to analyse the entrepreneur's business and background. There is much literature and beliefs about what makes a successful entrepreneur. In order to deconstruct this process, this essay will examine the common myths regarding entrepreneurship and the common characteristics associated with entrepreneurs. In addition, a study done in Central London examining how entrepreneurial behaviour affects business cements the earlier two literature reviews. Lastly, the essay will look into the beliefs of an established entrepreneur, Anita Roddick of The Body Shop and understand what she thinks are important entrepreneurial qualities. (1) It is about starting and running a small... (3) It is an "either/or" thing: Entrepreneurship is not a fixed concept and the key is to recognize that it is a variable phenomenon. (4) It is about taking wild risks: Risks are assumed and taken, but they are calculated risks where the underlying risk factors are identified. (5) Entrepreneurs are born: Environment plays a big part in the development and realization of potential where the accumulation of activities, skills, and knowledge over time is crucial. (6) It is about greed: The real motivator behind entrepreneurial behaviour is not money, power or position but the desire to achieve and make a difference. (7) It is about individuals: The existence and quality of a team is critical as no one individual has the ability, time or talent to bring a concept to reality. (8) There is only one type of entrepreneur: Entrepreneurs come from all walks of life and represent a diverse mix of age groups, races, religions, cultures, genders, and occupational backgrounds. (9) It requires a lo t of money: Entrepreneurial individuals are opportunity, not resource driven and do not limit the scope of their vision by their resources owned but by leveraging their resources. (10) It is about luck: It is about hard work, creative insight, in-depth analysis, adaptability, and openness to an opportunity. (11) It starts with a new product or service: It is about determining whether a need exists, how extensive that need is, how satisfied customers are with their current products, what the switching costs will be, and whether there is meaningful advantages in the product or service. (12) It is unstructured and chaotic: When dealing with the unknown, it is important
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Lyndon Baines Johnson - Thesis Example The era of 1950s marked the initiation of a decades-long war, namely the Cold War, between the capitalistic United States and the communist Soviet Union. The war was characterized by a conflict of ideologies that clashed to result in a war that was to change the world politics for quite a few decades ahead. By the time President John F. Kennedy was elected as the President, both countries, the US and the USSR had started forming blocs of their own Ã¢â¬â capitalist bloc and the communist bloc. A sort of domino effect followed where gradually but progressively, states in Eastern Europe and South East Asia overthrew their governments to replace with a communist regime. This clash between the two states, rather ideologies threatened the start of a nuclear war. After President John F. Kennedy was assassinated, Lyndon Baines Johnson, also known LBJ, became the president. Following the stance over the domino theory in the South East Asian region, the US believed that communism was a nece ssary evil that would spread from one country to another much as dominos fall one by one inline. Also, the Cuban Missile Crisis had also not proved to be favorable for the Americans thereby escalating the US need to intervene in the world stage. This intervention was seen in the light of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the Vietnam War following its communist takeover in South Vietnam by the Viet Cong. The event has been the most important one during the term of LBJ as the president, an incident for which he will be remembered for his failure at the war.
Monday, November 18, 2019
The Use of Information Technology In the Delivery of Hospitality Services - Essay Example Impact of Information Technology on Hospitality Firms Without a doubt, in the past few years from entertaining visitors or guests and creating menus to monitoring staff members, information technology has significantly changed and modernized the way the hospitality sector works at the present time (Pandey, 2010). In the past, the hospitality firms have used cards, physically, or paperwork at the front desk with the purpose of keeping up a communication with old and existing customers. In this scenario, hospitality firms were for the most part at the compassion of the needs of guests to get there, as well as on their own efforts and staff to be there for possible surges or extended deficiencies of tenancy. On the other hand, in the absence of IT supported tools and applications hospitality firms were facing serious business issues. In their article, (Nikolis, 2008) outline a variety of significant areas of the hospitality firms where IT tools and applications are being used to offer s ervices. For instance, one of the basic reasons that IT has turned out to be critical is its helpfulness for the billing section of the hospitality firms, which has been significantly improved with the emergence of IT. In fact, manual data entry and traditional paper-based was slow, time-consuming and unproductive, and it did not offer effective support in letting the hospitality firm know what is the current status of their firm. On the other hand, in order to deal with these issues the advancements of IT in the form of state-of-the-art record keeping systems keep in mind a hotel owner to keep up to date with what they have with good grace available, how much investment it will take and how much time it will take (Nikolis, 2008). In addition, in order to make effective use of... This essay stresses that information technology is playing a significant role in every walk of life. Our lives are always surrounded by the information technologies. Seeing the ever-increasing importance of information technologies hospitality industry has started making use of information technologies in different forms. This paper has presented a detailed analysis of some of the important uses of information technologies in the hospitality industry. This paper has summarized the viewpoints of other researchers. At the present, the Internet is playing a significant role in the hospitality industry. The majority of hotels is adopting this tool for marketing purpose. Many hotels use their web sites to communicate with their customers and receive their feedback. The information technology has also helped the hospitality firms to automate their manual or traditional business processes. This paper has also discussed some of the latest technologies which can be adopted by hotels in order to get a competitive edge over other hotels and get the attention of more customers. However, it depends on an organization how effectively it makes use of information technology. A hospitality firm should keep in mind the interest of their customers and offer facilities on the basis of their interests. The use of the information technology has offered a lot of benefits and opportunities for the hospitality industry.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Literature Review on Preconception Counseling and Education Review of literature is an essential step in the development of a research project. It helps the researcher to design the proposed study in a scientific manner. So as to achieved the desired result. In this chapter the researcher will present the review of literature in the following heading. Section-I: Studies related to Importance of preconception counseling and health education. Section-II: Studies related to Knowledge and attitude regarding preconception care. Section-III: Studies related to Use of vitamin supplements prior to pregnancy. Section-IV: Studies related to Health awareness and promotion on preconception care Section-V: Studies related to Betty Neumanns system model SECTION-I: STUDIES RELATED TO PRECONCEPTION COUNSELLING AND HEALTH EDUCATION Bastani, Hashemi, Bastani, Haghani., (2010) conducted a study, among the women attending premarital clinics in Iran which was aimed to assess the impact of a health education workshop on their health locus of control and self-efficacy in physical activity. Randomized controlled trial was used as the design for the study. A questionnaire was used before and after the intervention. There were significant increases in scores of internal health locus of control and self-efficacy in the experimental group that is among the 109 samples in the post-intervention. Compared to the control group that is among 101 samples. Short-term health education can empower the women to adapt to the healthy lifestyles. Berghella,Buchanan, Pereira, Baxter., (2010) conducted study on the available literature, on preconception care. They have searched in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and PUBMED from 1966 until January 2009. The target audience was Obstetricians Gynecologists, Family Physicians and adolescence. When they completed the educational programme, the participant was having knowledge to assess the potential benefits for women and their baby that which results from the preconception care. Jong-Potjer LC de, Elsinga, et.al., (2006) conducted a study on Preconception counselling can reduce negative pregnancy problems by finding the risk factors before pregnancy in Netherlands. Randomized trial of women aged 18-40years were used as sample in the study. The anxiety level was assessed among the women. After the Preconception care there was found an average decrease of 3.6 points in anxiety-levels (95% CI, 2.4 4.8). Mean scores of the STAI-3 were 38.5 (95% CI 37.7 39.3) in the control group (n = 1090) and 38.7 (95% CI 37.9 39.5) in the intervention group (n = 1186). Study proved that anxiety reduced after participation due to the effect of counselling. Therefore the offer of Preconception counselling to the general population is effective to reduce anxiety. SECTION-II: STUDIES RELATED TO KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE REGARDING THE PRECONCEPTION CARE Coonrod, Bruce, Malcolm, Drachman, Frey., (2009) conducted a study to find out the knowledge and attitudes regarding preconception care in a low-income Mexican American population. A cross-sectional survey was used and the sample size was 305. 89% agreed that improving preconception health benefits pregnancy. 77% expressed some interest in preconception health care. Areas of high knowledge included were the folic acid use in pregnancy; use of alcohol; and verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. The samples showed interest in the preconception education and agreed that preconception health will have positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. Maria , Morgan Debra Hawks, et.al., (2006) conducted a study to describe obstetrician-gynecologists opinions regarding preconception care. The Questionnaire was mailed to 1105 ACOG members. 60% was the response rate. 87% of the gynecologists think that preconception counselling is important and 94% think that it should be always recommend to the women planning for pregnancy. Around 34% thought their patients do not plan for their pregnancies and 49% said very few pregnant patients came for preconception counselling. Of those who obtain preconception counselling, 83% were believed to assure a healthy pregnancy because of an elevated risk for birth defects (20%). Janis Biermann, Anne Lang Dunlop, et.al., (2006) conducted two program focusing the urban African-American women which has included the interconception care also. Project was aimed to reduce the key risks in the women of childbearing age. 7 out of 21 women in the IPC were identified as having a previous chronic disease. 21 out of 21 women have developed a reproductive plan for themselves, and they didnt become pregnant within 9 months. The success rate of the project was greater than 70% among the participants. Preconception care appeared to be effective when specific risk factors were identified and interventions were given appropriately. SECTION-III: STUDIES RELATED TO USE OF VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS PRIOR TO THE PREGNANCY Carl J, Hill, DA., (2009) did a study that womens diet should be supplemented with 400 mcg folic acid every day which helps in reducing neural tube defects in their babies up to 72%. Blood glucose should be controlled prior to conception helps in reducing the birth defects and pregnancy loss. Reducing the caffeine consumption can reduce the risk of miscarriage. Counselling was given for women in these areas and found to be effective. Morgan LM, Major JL, Meyer RE, Mullenix A., (2009) proved that use of 400 mcg of folic acid among non-pregnant females of childbearing age in the Western North Carolina reduced the risk of neural tube defects by 50%-80. To the non-pregnant women free bottle of multivitamins was given to increase the consumption. The daily use multivitamin was increased after receiving a free three month supply. Weerd de, Sabina Thomas, Chris, Cikot, Rolf, Steegers, Eric., (2002) conducted a study to assess whether counselling the women who plans for pregnancy to start or to continue the folic acid supplementation can improves folate status. Women and their partners who have reported folic acid supplement intake were categorized as users or nonusers of supplements. The use of folic acid intake was addressed at a subsequent preconceptional consultation. Differences between reported supplement users and nonusers before counselling as well as between assumed users and nonusers of folic acid were analyzed. A total of 111 eligible women participated. Preconceptional folic acid use can improves the folate status among women planning to conceive. SECTION-IV: STUDIES RELATED TO HEALTH AWARENESS AND PROMOTION OF PRECONCEPTION CARE Vause, Jones, Evans, Wilkie, Leader., (2009) conducted a study whether counselling before conception is important. After completing the knowledge survey the woman was sent for initial assessment. 400 surveys were used for the data analysis. Patients were informed about the health optimization, consumption of folic acid, exposure to infectious disease, use of medication and use of recreational drug. Nulliparous women were found less knowledgeable. The more educated women had more knowledge. It was suggested that the women need their physicians to educate about pre-pregnancy lifestyle. Delvoye, Guillaume, Collard, Nardella, Hannecart, Mauroy., (2009) conducted a study regarding preconception health promotion. The study results showed that preconception care was not able to provide when pregnancy was unplanned. The study proposes flour fortification with folic acid; timely immunization, continuous training of health care providers in the provision of preconception cares. Delgado CE., (2008) done a study to assess undergraduate student awareness regarding preconception health. In the study 241 students were included as the sample. A questionnaire was designed to assess awareness related to preconception health and pregnancy. By answering 64% the students showed a mild to moderate level of awareness regarding preconception care. Individual student scores varied a great deal, ranging from 33% to 89% correct. Students who had previous such course containing information on pregnancy and/or child development correctly answered a greater percentage of items than those who had not taken such a course. Females had statistically significantly, higher awareness scores than males. Students demonstrated a high level of awareness for use of substance, a moderate level of awareness for sexually transmitted diseases and preconception care, and lower levels of awareness for folic acid, prenatal development, health, and pregnancy spacing. SECTION-V: STUDIES RELATED TO BETTY NEUMANNS SYSTEM MODEL Deepa Thomas, (1998) conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of instructional module on knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in selected schools in Trivandrum. In her study she used Betty Newmans System model (1989) for creating awareness regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Stressors in her study were hormonal, physical and psychosocial changes and the existing superstitions and lack of knowledge of adolescent girls and the reaction was poor menstrual hygiene and maladjustment. She used two interventions in her study. The primary prevention was done by using the instructional module for providing education to the adolescent girls regarding menarche, development of secondary sexual characteristics and menstrual hygiene. In her study the secondary prevention was detection of unhygienic practices and education to correct the practices. The reconstitution in her study was the better adjustment and better hygiene. Alpha.G., (2008) conducted a study to find the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding changes related to puberty and menstrual hygiene among prepubertal girls in selected schools, at Salem. In her study she used Betty Newmans System model (1989) for creating awareness regarding menstrual hygiene among prepubertal girls. Stressors in her study were the physical and psychosocial changes related to puberty. She used one intervention in her study. The primary prevention was done through structured teaching programme on changes related to puberty and menstrual hygiene. The reconstitution in her study was the better knowledge and attitude towards pubertal changes and menstrual hygiene.